lunes, 17 de enero de 2011

Para todos los 5to.

DIRECT SPEECH

REPORTED SPEECH


Present Simple 
Past Simple 
She said, "I am happy".
He said: "I work everyday".

She said that she was happy.
He said that he worked everyday.
Present Progressive (Continuous) 
Past Progressive (Continuous) 
You said, "They are swimming".

You said that they were swimming.
Present Perfect Simple 
Past Perfect Simple 
He said, "I have bought a car".

He said that he had bought a car.
Past Simple 
Past Perfect Simple 
He said, "I bought a hamster".

He said that he had bought a hamster.
Past Progressive (Continuous) 
Past Perfect Progressive (Continuous) 
You said, "I was working".

You said that you had been working.
Future of Intention ("going to") 
Past of Intention ("going to") 
She said, "I am going to win".

She said that she was going to win.
Future Simple 
Conditional 
They said, "We will lose".

They said that they would lose.
Future Perfect
Perfect Conditional
She said, "I will have bought it by Friday".

She said that she would have bought it by Friday.
Future Progressive (Continuous) 
Progressive (Continuous) Conditional 
She said, "I will be having tea at ".

She said that she would be having tea at
Present Perfect Progressive (Continuous)
Past Perfect Progressive (Continuous)
She said, "I have been painting the ceiling".

She said that she had been painting the ceiling.


Modal verbs

DIRECT SPEECH

REPORTED SPEECH


can 
could 

may 
might 

must 
must / had to

IMPORTANT!!!!

However, other auxiliary verbs (could, would, should, might, ought to, used to and mustn't) have no past form and so they do not change. Some examples:

could
DIRECT SPEECH: He said, "I could fly because the weather was fine".
REPORTED SPEECH: He said he could fly because the weather was fine. 
ought to 
DIRECT SPEECH: They said, "We ought to pay him a better salary".
REPORTED SPEECH: They said they ought to pay him a better salary.
used to
DIRECT SPEECH: She said, "I used to live in London".
REPORTED SPEECH: She told me she used to live in London.
SOME ADDITIONAL CHANGES 

DIRECT
SPEECH

REPORTED
SPEECH

this 
that 
these 
those 
here 
there 
now 
then 
today 
that day 
this morning
that morning 
yesterday 
the day before 
tomorrow 
the next day or
the following day

However, in reality it may be becessary to be more specific:
THIS 
  THE BOOK HE WAS HOLDING IN HIS HAND
e.g. He asked, "Who does this belong to?".
He asked who the book in his hand belonged to. (We don't say: "that book"; it is not very specific).

HERE 
  IN THE SITTING ROOM
e.g. She said, "My father was here".
She said that her father had been in the sitting room. (We don't say: "there"; it is not very specific).

REPORTED QUESTIONS 

1. Indirect questions are just a special case of reported statements. When the reporting verb is in the past the one-tense back rule applies in the same way. The difference is that we have to change the word order because the reported clause is not a question anymore. If the reported clause uses the auxiliary verb do/did, these disappear. And you must use the conjunction if ( = on the condition that; supposing that).

e.g. She asked, "Do you work on Saturdays?".
She asked me IF I WORKED on Saturdays. (We don't say: She asked me do you work on Saturdays). 
2. If the reported clause has an inverted verb this inversion is reversed.

e.g. He asked, "Can I come?".
He asked me IF HE COULD COME.

e.g. Helen asked, "Can I make a phone call?".
Helen asked IF SHE COULD MAKE a phone call.

e.g. Jim asked, "Should I buy that book?".
Jim asked IF HE SHOULD BUY that book.

PLEASE, REMEMBER THIS: In colloquial style you can use the conjunction if instead of whether (pronounced as /uéder/ and also translated as "si" in Spanish), but in formal English you must use whether: "Jim asked WHETHER HE SHOULD BUY that book (OR NOT). 
3. If the direct question includes a question word (i.e. how, when, where, who, why, etc.) this question word is used in the reported question. If it does not, we use if or whether:

e.g. He asked, "How old are you?".
He asked me how OLD I WAS.

e.g. He asked, "When is she leaving the office?".
He asked when SHE WAS LEAVING the office.

e.g. He asked, "Where can I leave my coat?".
He asked where HE COULD LEAVE his coat.

e.g. He asked, "Who is going to Buenos Aires?".
He asked who WAS GOING to Buenos Aires.

e.g. Julie asked, "Why are you in California?".
Julie asked why I WAS in California.

REPORTED REQUESTS AND COMMANDS 
REQUEST: appeal, petition, asking (pedido, solicitud, requerimiento, in Spanish)
COMMAND: order (orden, in Spanish)

In reported requests and commands we often use the verbs ASK (for requests) and TELL (for commands). However, these verbs are not used in the same way as in reported statements or reported questions, and they are followed by an INFINITIVE STRUCTURE:

STANDARD USE: e.g. She asked, "Do you know them?"  
   She asked asked me if I knew them.
COMMANDS: She said, "Please, be quiet !!"  
   She asked me TO BE QUIET. (infinitive structure)

STANDARD USE: e.g. He said, "I will come home"  
   He told me he would come.
STANDARD USE: e.g. He said, "I will come home"  
   He told me he would come.
COMMANDS: He ordered, "Sit down !!"  
   He told me TO SIT DOWN.

Others verbs that use this INFINITIVE STRUCTURE include: 

VERBS
English
Spanish

advise
command
compel
expect
instruct
invite
order
persuade
recommend
remind
request
urge
warn
give an advice
order
force, oblige
look forward
give instructions
offer someone an invitation
tell someone to do something
cause someone to do something
give a recommendation
recall someone from memory
ask for
encourage
notify of danger or risk
aconsejar
ordenar
forzar, obligar
esperar
instruir
invitar
ordenar
persuadir
recomendar
recordar a alguien (que haga algo)
solicitar
alentar, estimular
advertir, alertar

RECOMMENDATIONS 

1. Verbs such as SUGGEST, PROPOSE, RECOMMEND are used to make recommendations. If the speaker includes himself/herself in the recommended action, we use the -ING FORM (gerund) in the reported clause:

e.g. Ana suggested, "Why don't we go to the park".
Ana suggested going to the park. (Ana included herself in the suggestion)


2. However, if the speaker does not include himself/herself in the sugegstion, we use a "THAT" CLAUSE:

e.g. Ana suggested, "Why don't you go to the park".
Ana suggested that I should go to the park. (Ana didn't include herself in the suggestion)


3. With these verbs we can use the present subjunctive (e.g. "go") or should (e.g.: "should go") in the reported clause:

e.g. Ana proposed that we go to the park    or    Ana proposed that we should go to the park

OFFERS AND REFUSALS 

With the verbs OFFER and REFUSE we use the infinitive structure but NO indirect object:

e.g. She said, "Shall I carry your bag, Tommy?".
She offered to carry Tommy's bag.

e.g. He said, "I won't come to the party !!".
He refused to come to the party.



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